Highlighted Articles - Atherosclerosis December 2015 issue
15 December 2015
Volume 243 Issue 2 December 2015
By Elvira Mambetisaeva, Sarah Leigh and Steve Humphries (Editor–in-Chief)
Narverud et al investigated the impact of maternal familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) on pre-treatment plasma lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children with FH. Their findings confirm that FH children with LDL receptor negative variants are characterised with higher total and LDL cholesterol. They also show that these children have reduced HDL cholesterol and ApoA1 plasma levels but not CRP. However, no significant differences were observed in the plasma levels of lipids and CRP in children with maternal FH compared with children with paternal FH. Schofield & Bhatnagar in their commentary point out that the report by Narverud et al does not prove the fetal origin of adult atherosclerosis as only hypercholesterolemia is considered. Therefore, they suggest that the repeat assessment of these children as adults would be valuable as it has been reported that maternal inheritance of FH is associated with more significant hypercholesterolemia in adult offspring than paternal inheritance.
Using 1365 subjects from the EVIDENT trial, García-Hermoso et al conducted a cross-sectional study aimed at analysing the relationship between sedentary behaviour and arterial stiffness in a Spanish population. Their data shows that a low number of breaks from sedentary activity per day is negatively associated with some arterial stiffness parameters.
Meanwhile, Horta et al published their findings using the Pelotas birth cohort study, to analyse the associations between physical activity and sedentary time using pulse wave velocity in a population of young Brazilian adults. Their findings with 1241 participants show that subjects who spent more than 30 min/day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity had lower pulse wave velocities.
In his invited commentary Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss notes that the findings of the Spanish and the Brazilian cohorts together further add to the growing evidence for the adverse effects of a sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, health professionals should give new recommendations for the interruption of a sedentary routine and promote regular physical activities.
As cardiovascular disease has become the major cause of death in spinal injury patients in recent years, Stoner et al offer a “Vascular health toolbox” (guidelines) to enable clinicians to assess cardiovascular health in individuals using non-invasive technologies. Thereby, offering reliability and validity to serial patient risk assessments.
The role of soluble endoglin (sEng) in hypercholesterolemia and endothelial dysfunction is examined in the review article by Rathouska et al. They focus on the significance of sEng in endothelial dysfunction and cholesterol levels and go on to outline its potential as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease progression. Furthermore, they propose that sEng measurements could be used as surrogate markers for the efficacy of cardiovascular disease therapies and endothelial dysfunction. They also offer the caveat that any possible influence of sENG as an inducer of endothelial dysfunction remains to be revealed.
The review article by Pirillo & Catapano brings together various animal and clinical research data on the multiple properties of Berberine (BBR) (an isoquinoline plant alkaloid), including the pharmacological properties (anti-microbial, anti-tumoral, glucose & cholesterol-lowering) and immune-modulatory activities. The authors discuss possible mechanisms for the actions of BBR and emphasize the important future therapeutic potential of the glucose & cholesterol-lowering properties.
Papers in this issue include: