Highlighted Articles - Atherosclerosis May 2015 Issue
27 May 2015
Posted by: Carmel Hayes
By Elvira Mambetisaeva, Sarah Leigh and Steve Humphries (Editor–in-Chief)
In their retrospective study of 1149 healthy individuals, Majima et al demonstrated that PR interval (iPR) and QRS duration (dQRS) could independently predict renal function decline in these healthy subjects over a three year period. Guglielmo Trovato welcomes this possibly “counterintuitive” finding in his invited commentary. He expresses the view that these thorough investigations which reveal shared pathologies in conditions such as cardiovascular disease and deteriorating renal function, will help to raise awareness of co-morbidities in chronic disease, and will ultimately facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
D'Ascenzo et al performed a systematic review to understand the prevalence and characteristics of coronary plaques in asymptomatic HIV patients. The authors analysed nine studies with 1229 HIV patients and 1029 controls. Their main findings were that HIV-infected patients present higher rates of non-calcified coronary plaques compared to similar to HIV-negative subjects and furthermore, that the disease stage contributes to cardiovascular instability. Bittencourt & Peixoto, in their invited commentary, highlight that D'Ascenzo et al’s findings provide further insight on the association of CD4+ and cardiovascular disease, thus showing that more advanced HIV-infection may play a significant role in the initial development and further progression of atherosclerosis. They note that although coronary computed tomography angiography and plaque analysis are not appropriate for widespread clinical investigation of asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals at this stage, they can be useful for selecting higher risk individuals for primary prevention trials.
The review by Brandenburg et al summarises the current knowledge on the association between vitamin K and cardiovascular health. The authors discuss relevant data from experimental animal models and from clinical studies that investigate the cardioprotective properties of vitamin K. It is noted that several ongoing studies will provide the answer to the main question whether vitamin K supplementation has beneficial vascular effects and how this may translate into a reduced disease burden in patients.
Patel et al investigated genetic and immunological factors associated with statin-related myopathy by performing a computerized literature searches of related articles published in the last 34 years. Their review focuses on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of genes associated with statin-related myopathy and provides a consensus recommended diagnostic approach for clinicians.
In their systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), Sahebkar et al assessed the impact of fibrate therapy on plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. From the 14 RCTs examined they concluded that administration of fibrates did not affect PAI-1 concentration, nor activity, irrespective of the fibrate used. Thus, suggesting that the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of fibrates are independent of PAI-1.
Papers in this issue include: